Temple of Artemis, one of the 7 wonders of the ancient world was rediscovered in 1869 by John Turtle Wood. It is the first marble temple of the Ancient world.
Like all the other Artemis temples it was faced to the west. The Temple was
designed and constructed in 6th c. BC. Early construction was built at the
expense of Croesus, the wealthy king of Lydia. Marshy ground was selected
for the building site as a precaution against future earthquakes. The temple
became a tourist attraction, visited by merchants, kings, and sightseers, many
of whom paid homage to Artemis in the form of jewelry and various goods. Its
splendor also attracted many worshippers, many of whom formed the cult of
Artemis. The temple of Artemis at Ephesus was burned on July 21, 356 BC
in an act committed by Herostratus. According to the story, his
motivation was fame at any cost, thus the term herostratic fame. That very same
night, Alexander the Great was born. Plutarch remarked that Artemis was too
preoccupied with Alexander's delivery to save her burning temple. Alexander
later offered to pay for the Temple's rebuilding, but the Ephesians refused.
Eventually, the temple was restored after Alexander's death, in 323 BC. In 401, the temple was finally destroyed by a mob led by christians, and the stones were used in construction of
other buildings. Some of the columns (green) in Hagia Sophia originaly belonged
to the temple of Artemis.